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考博英语真题|2005年北京师范大学考博英语真题解析

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2005年北京师范大学考博英语真题

. Reading Comprehension (25 points)

Directions: There are five passages in this part. Each of the passages is followed by five questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Chose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET.

1

A weather map is an important tool for geographers. A succession of three or four maps present a continuous picture of weather changes. Weather forecasters are able to determine the speed of air masses and fronts; to determine whether an individual pressure area is deepening or becoming shallow and whether a front is increasing or decreasing in intensity. They are also able to determine whether an air mass is retaining its original characteristics or taking on those of the surface over which it is moving. Thus, a most significant function of the map is to reveal a synoptic picture of conditions in the atmosphere at a given time.

All students of geography should be able to interpret a weather map accurately. Weather maps containan enormous amount of information about weather conditions existing at the time of abservation over a large geographical area. They reveal in a few minutes what otherwise would take hours to describe. The United States Weather Bureau issues information about approaching storms, floods, droughts and all climatic conditions in general. Twice a month it issues a 30-day “outlook” which is a rough guide to weather conditions likely to occur over broad areas of the United States. These 30-day outlooks are based upon an analysis of the upper air level which often set the stage for the development of air masses fronts and storms.

Considerable effort is being exerted today to achieve more accurate weather predictions. With the use of electronic instruments and earth satellites, enormous gains have taken place recently in identifying and tracking storms over regions which have but few meteorological stations. Extensive experiments are also in progress forweather modification studies.

21. One characteristic of weather maps NOT mentioned by the author in this passage is .

A. fronts

B. changes in temperature

C. frost

D. wind speed

22. The 30-day forecast is determined by examining .

A. daily weather maps

B. upper air levels

C. satellite reports

D. changing fronts

23. The observation of weather conditions by satellites is advantageous because it .

A. is modern and profitable for the companies involved

B. uses electronic instruments to measure the weather on a daily basis

C. enables man to easily alter the weather to his advantage and profit

D. gives the scientists information not obtained readily otherwise

24. At the present time, experiments are being conducted in .

A. manipulating weather

B. determining density of pressure groups

C. satellites

D. controlling storms

25. A weather map is synoptic because it .

A. summarizes a great deal of information

B. appears daily

C. shows changing fronts

D. can be interpreted accurately

2

With only a bout 1,000 pandas left in the world, China is desperately trying to clone the animal and save the endangered species. That’s a move similar to what a Texas A&M University researcher has been undertaking for the past five years in a project called “Noah’s Ark”.

Dr. Duane Kraemer, a professor in Texas A&M’s College of Veterinary Medicine and a pioneer in embryo transfer work and related procedures, said he salutes the Chinese effort and “I wish them all the best success possible. It’s a worthwhile project, certainly not an easy one, and it’s very much like what we’re attempting here at Texas A&M---to save animals from extinction.”

Noah’s Ark is aimed at collecting eggs, embryos, semen and DNA of endangered animals and storing them in liquid nitrogen. If certain species should become extinct, Kraemer says there would be enough of the basic building blocks to reintroduce the species in the future.

It is estimated that as many as 2,000 species of mammals, birds and reptiles will become extinct over the next 100 years. The panda. Native only to China, is in danger of becoming extinct in the next 25 years.

This week, Chinese scientists said they grew an embryo by introducing cells from a dead female panda into the egg cells of a Japanese white while rabbit. They are now trying to implant the embryo into a host animal.

The entire procedure could take from three to five years to complete.

“The nuclear transfer of one species to another is not easy, and the lack of available panda eggs could be a major problem,” Kraemer believes. “They will probably h ave to do sevcral hundred transfers to result in one pregnancy. It takes along time and it’s difficult, but this could be groundbreaking science if it works. They are certainly not putting any live pandas at risk, so it is worth the effort,” adds Kraemer, who is one of the leaders of the Missyplicity Project at Texas A&M, the first-ever attempt at cloning a dog.

“They are trying to do something that’s never been done, and this very similar to our work in Noah’s Ark. We’re both trying to save animals that face extinction. I certainly applaud their effort and there’s a lot we can learn from what they are attempting to do. It’s a rescarch that is very much needed.”

26. The aim of “Noah’s Ark” project is to .

A. salute the Chinese efforts in saving pandas

B. implant embryo into a host animal

C. introduce cells from a dead female panda into the egg cells of a Japanese white rabbit

D. save endangered animals from extinction

27. How long will the Chinese panda-cloning project take according to the passage?

A. 3 to 5 years.

B. 1 year.

C. 25 years.

D. 2 years.

28. The word “groundbreaking” (Paragraph 7) can be interpreted as .

A. pioneering

B. essentially new

C. epoch-making

D. evolutionary

29. What could be the major problem in cloning pandas according to Professor Kraemer?

A. Lack of host animals.

B. Lack of available panda eggs.

C. Lack of funds.

D. Lack of qualified researchers.

30. The best title for the passage may be .

A. China’s Efforts to Clone Pandas

B. China---the Native Place of Pandas Forever

C. Exploring the Possibility to Clone Pandas

D. China’s First Cloned Panda

3

St. Paul has transformed soaring energy costs into a golden opportunity for economic development by putting the final touches on plans to:

1. Build the nation’s first system that will heat all major downtown buildings with waste heat now being dumped into the Mississippi River by electric utilities.

2. Create a &9-million “energy bank” to lend money to improve the energy efficiency of homes at low 9-to-11-percent interest rates.

3. Construct the nation’s first “energy park”. The area will include only those commercial, residential, and industrial facilities that are doing something energy-related. More than & 150-million worth of commitments has already been lined up.

These developments did not just happen. They resulted when Mayor George Latimer asked volunteers to chart a new future for a city that is twice as cold as New York. “We cannot any longer look to foreign nations, old companies or the federal government to solve our energy crisis,” Latimer told his constituents. “We must look to ourselves to find the answers.”

31. The reason why these developments did not happen before was (that) .

A. the city imported enough foreign oil for its major downtown buildings

B. the federal government didn’t approve the necessary money for the construction

C. not given

D. St. Paul is colder than New York

32. St. Paul .

A. is located on the bank of the Mississippi River

B. has got a new mayor recently

C. is looking for the best approaches to solving its energy shortage

D. is lending money for commercial, residential and industrial purposes

33. The plans .

A. were drawn by Mayor George Latimer

B. were only for St. Paul’s major downtown buildings

C. were created by volunteers when they were asked to offer their ideas

D. were turning a golden opportunity into economic development

34. Which of the following facilities are/is NOT energy-related?

A. Shops or supermarkets.

B. A computer center or a factory.

C. Private homes.

D. Advertisement boards.

35. Judging from what Mayor Latimer said, we are sure that .

A. these developments will some day become true

B. foreign nations and oil companies are not reliable

C. the future of St. Paul is quite uncertain

D. high energy costs will soon be eliminated

4

Ideas about “spoiling” children have always involved consideration of just what is a spoiled child. Haw does spoiling occur, and what are the consequences of spoiling; they have always included concepts of a child’s nature and concepts of the ideal child and the ideal adult.

The many mothers of the 1820s who belonged to the early “maternal associations” struggled to uphold the ideals about child raising that had been prevalent in the 18th century. They had always been told that the spoiled child stood in danger of having trouble later in life (when exposed to all the temptations of the world) and, more importantly, stood in danger of spiritual ruin.

At first, the only approach these mothers knew was to “break the will” of the child. This approach, coming initially from the theology of Calvin, the French Protestant reformer, was inherited from the stern outlook of the Puritans. As one mother wrote. “No child has ever been known, since the earliest period of the world, destitute of an evil disposition---however sweet it appears.” Infant depravity, by which was meant the child’s impulses, could be curbed only by breaking the will so that the child submitted completely to parental guidance.

In 1834, a mother described this technique: Upon the father’s order, her 16-month-old daughter had refused to say “Dear Mama” so the toddler was left alone in a room where she screamed wildly for ten minutes. After the ten minutes, the child was commanded again, and again she refused, so she was whipped and ordered again. This continued for four hours until the child finally obeyed. Parents commonly reported that after one such trial of “will”, the child became permanently submissive. In passing, we can note that knowledge about a child’s “No” period might have moderated the disciplining of little children and the application of the saying “Spare the rod and spoil the child”.

By freeing the child from its evil nature, parents believed they could then guide the child into acquiring the right character traits, such as honesty, industriousness, and sobriety. These moral principles, fixed in the child’s character, were to govern it throughout life, in a society where free enterprise, individual effort, and competition were believed to be the ruling forces.

36. When the author talks about ideas considered in “the spoiling of children”, he does not include the .

A. nature of a child

B. reasons why spoiling occurs

C. images of an ideal adult and child

D. attitudes of spoiled children when they become adults

37. “Spare the rod and spoil the child” means .

A. spoiling children is not as evil as it seems

B. eliminating physical punishment is a sound policy

C. if you do not inflict physical punishment, you will spoil your child

D. “spoiling children” is a matter of definition

38. The author suggests that nineteenth century parents were chiefly interested in a child’s .

A. growing up to be industrious

B. acquiring good character traits

C. learning to compete successfully

D. respecting his parents slavishly

39. People in the 19th century be believed their society to be based on all but .

A. free enterprise

B. competitive endeavor

C. individualism

D. honesty

40. The purpose of this passage is to .

A. inform

B. persuade

C. incite

D. change an attitude

5

The American baby boom after the war made unconvincing U.S. advice to poor countries that they restrain their births. However, there has hardly been a year since 1957 in which birth rates have not fallen in the United States and other rich countries, and in 1976 the fall was especially sharp. Both East Germany and West Germany have fewer births than they have deaths, and the United States is only temporarily able to avoid this condition because the children of the baby boom are now an exceptionally large group of married couples.

It is true that Americans do not typically plan their births to set an example for developing nations. We are more affected by women’s liberation: once women see interesting and well-paid jobs are careers available, they are less willing to provide free labor for child raising. From costing nothing, children suddenly to seem impossibly expensive. And to the high cost of children are added the uncertainties, introduced by divorce; couples are increasingly unwilling to subject children to the terrible experience of marital breakdown and themselves to the difficulty of raising a child alone.

These circumstances---women working outside the home and the instability of marriage--- tend to spread with industrial society and they will affect more and more countries in the near future. Along with them goes social mobility, ambition to rise in the urban world, a main factor in bringing down the births in Europe in the 19th century.

Food shortage will happen again when the reserves resulting from the good harvests of 1998 and 1999 have been consumed Urbanization is likely to continue, with the cities of the developing nations struggling under the weight of twice their present populations by the year 2010. The presently rich countries are approaching a stable population largely because of the changed place of women, and they incidentally are setting an example of restraint to the rest of the world. Industrial society will spread to the poor countries, and aspiration will exceed resources. All this will lead to a population in the new century that is smaller than was feared a few years ago. For those anxious to see world population brought under control, the news is encouraging.

41. During the years from 1957 to 1976, the birth rate of the United States .

A. increased

B. was reduced

C. experienced both falls and rises

D. remained stable

42. What influences the birth rate most in the United States is .

A. highly paid jobs

B. women’s desire for independence

C. expenses of child raising

D. high divorce rate

43. The sentence “From costing nothing, children suddenly come to seem impossibly expensive” implies that .

A. food and clothing for babies are becoming incredibly expensive

B. prices are going up dramatically all the time

C. to raise children women have to give up interesting and well-paid jobs

D. social development has made child-raising inexpensive

44. A chief factor in bringing down the births in Europe in the 19th century is .

A. birth control

B. the desire to seek fortune in cities

C. the instability of marriage

D. the changed place of women

45. The population in the new century, according to the writer. .

A. will be smaller than a few years ago

B. will not be as small as people expect

C. will prove to be a threat to the world

D. will not continue as serious a problem as expected

. Translation and Writing (55 points)

Part A Translation

Translate the following into Chinese (25 points):

1. Natural disasters during the 1980s were 94% more frequent than in the 1970s. While it is possible that such a jump falls within normal climatic variation, insurance executives realize that it also conforms with patterns predicted for global warming.

2. The history of New England is written imperishably on the face of a continent. In the Old World national pride feeds itself with the record of battles and conquests; ---battles which proved nothing and settled nothing; conquests which shifted a boundary on the map, and put one ugly head instead of another on the coin which the people paid to the tax-gatherer. But wherever the New-Englander travels among the sturdy commonwealths which have sprung from the seed of the Mayflower. Churches, schools, colleges, tell him where the men of his race have been, or their influence penetrated; and an intelligent freedom is the monument of conquests whose results are not to be measured in the square miles. Next to the fugitives whom Moses (摩西) led out of Egypt, the little ship-load of outcasts who landed at Plymouth two centuries and a half ago are destined to influence the future of the world.

Translate the following into English (15 points):

在学问上打下坚实的基础将使你终生受益。在学习的初级阶段,学校所有科目中最重要的是语言和数学。语言是阅读和交流的工具,中文不能,你就不能很好地表达自己; 没有很好的掌握一门外语,你就会发现很难吸收外国的新知识。数学能训练人的逻辑思维。其他学科也各有用处,很难说哪一门更重要。比如,体育和音乐教育对于促进人的智力发展 同样是重要的。

Part B Summary Writing (15 points)

Read the following passage carefully and then write a summary of it in English in about 150 words

A tool is an implement or device used directly upon a piece of material to shape it into a desired form. The date of the earliest tools is extremely remote. Tools found in northern Kenya in 1969 have been estimated to be about 2600000 years old, and their state of development suggests that even older tools remain to be discovered.

The present array of tools has as common ancestors the sharpened stones that were the keys to early human survival. Rudely fractured stones, first found and later “made” by hunters who needed a general-purpose tool, were a “knife” of sorts that could also be used to hack, to pound, and to grub. In the course of a vast interval of time, a variety of single-purpose tools came into being. With the twin developments of agriculture and animal domestication, roughly 10000 years ago. The many demands of a settled way of life led to a higher degree of tool specialization; the identities of the ax, adz, chisel, and saw were clearly established more than 4000 years ago.

The common denominator of these tools is removal of material from a workpiece, usually by some form of cutting. The presence of a cutting edge is therefore characteristic of most tools. And the principal concern of toolmakers has been the pursuit and creation of improved cutting edges. Tool effectiveness was enhanced enormously by hafting---the fitting of a handle to a piece of sharp stone, which endowed the tool with better control, more energy, or both.

It is helpful to draw the distinction between hand and machine tools. Hand tools are those used by craftsmen in manual operations, such as chopping, chiseling, sawing, filing, or forging. Complementary tools, often needed as auxiliaries to the shaping tools, include such implements as the hammer for nailing and the vise for holding. A craftsman may also use instruments that facilitate accurate measurements: the rule, divider, square, and others. Power tools---usually hand-held, motor-powered implements such as the electric drill or electric saw---perform many of the old manual operations and as such may be considered hand tools. Machine tools are analogous to hand tools in their function as shaping implements, but they require stationary mounting and mechanical drive for the working of strong materials, primarily metal, and the mass processing of precision parts.

During the evolution of tools over more than 2000000 years, using as principal materials, successively, stone, bronze, and iron, humans developed a number of particular tools. Taken together, these specialized tools form an inverted pyramid resting upon the first general-purpose tool. The nearly formless chopper. With the discovery of metals and the support of numerous inventions allowing their exploitation, the first approximations to the modern forms of the basic tools of the craftsman established themselves, with the main thrust of further development directed at improving the cutting edges.

The earliest tools were multipurpose; specialized tools were latecomers. A multipurpose tool, although able to do a number of things, does none of them as well as a tool designed or proportioned for one job and one material.

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