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2017考博英语语法:非谓语动词常考的其它结构

http://kaobo.b2cedu.com  2016-8-22  来源:本站原创  作者:佚名

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  非谓语动词常考的其它结构

  (1)疑问词+不定式结构

  疑问词who,what,which,when,where和how后加不定式可构成一种特殊的不定式短语。它在句中可以用作主语、宾语、表语和双重宾语。如:

  When to start has not been decided.何时动身尚未决定。(主语)

  I don’t know what to do.我不知道该怎么办。(宾语)

  The difficulty was how to cross the river.困难在于如何过河。(表语)

  I can tell you where to get this book.我可以告诉你哪里可以买到此书。(双重宾语)

  (注)A.有时疑问词前可用介词,如:

  I have no idea of how to do it.我不知道如何做此事。

  B.动词know 后面不能直接跟不定式作宾语,只能跟疑问词(如:how, what)+不定式:

  While still a young boy, Tom knew to play the piano well and as he grew older, he wrote operas, the most famous of which is Carmen.

  (2)介词except和but作“只有…,只能…”讲时跟不定式结构(but与不带to的不定式连用)。

  When the streets are full of melting snow, you cannot help but getting your shoes wet.

  (3)不带to的不定式

  1)在表示生理感觉的动词后的不定式不带to。这类词有:

  feel 觉得 observe 注意到,看到 overhear听到

  watch注视 listen to听 perceive察觉,感知

  notice注意 see看见 look at看 hear听

  On seeing the young child fell into the lake,Eric sprang to his feet,and went on the rescue.

  2)另一类是某些使役动词,如make, let,have等。如:

  Let him do it.让他做吧。

  I would have you know that I am ill.我想要你知道我病了。

  (注):

  ①上述感觉动词与使役动词转换为被动结构时.其后的不定式一般需带to,如:

  He was seen to come.

  The boy was made to go to bed early.

  ②在动词find与help之后,不定式可带to亦可不带to,如:

  He was surprised to find the sheep (to) break fence at this season.他发现羊在此季节越出栅栏,感到惊讶。

  3)在do nothing/anything/everything but(except)结构中。例如:

  Last night I did nothing but watch TV.昨天晚上,我除了看电视别的什么也没有干。

  但是,如果谓语动词不是“do nothing,anything,everything”,那么but(except)所跟的不定式则仍须带。

  The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.医生除了让他戒烟,其它什么都没有说。

  There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.除了保持沉默以外,他们没有别有别的办法。

  (4)不定式与动名词的逻辑主语和分词独立结构

  1)不定式的逻辑主语为:for +名词(或代词宾格)+ 不定式。例如:

  I found it impossible for him to do the job alone.我发现他—个人干这活是不可能的。

  (注)在表示人物性格、特性等的形容词后面,常用of引出不定式的逻辑主语。例如:

  It was wise of him to do that.他那样做是明智的。

  2)动名词的逻辑主语为;①人称代词的所有格+动名词;②名词’s+动名词。例如:

  Tom insisted on my going with them.他坚持要我和他们一起去。

  He dislikes his wife’s working late.他不喜欢他妻子工作得很晚。

  3)某些形容词,如:careless等不定式后可以加of来引导出其逻辑主语。这类词主要有:absurd, bold, brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly, stupid, good, nice, kind thoughtful, considerate, greedy, generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel ,selfish, wicked, wrong等

  It is very kind of you to help me.你帮助我太好了。

  间或也可用for + there to be表示(而且there后面的不定式只能是to be)。

  It’s a great pity for there to be much trouble in the company.太遗憾了公司里有这么多的麻烦。

  7.非谓语动词中的有关句型

  (1)动名词作主语的句型

  1)Doing...+ v. Reading is an art.阅读是门艺术。Seeing is believing.眼见为实。

  2) It is + no use, no good (fun, a great pleasure, a waste of time, a bore...)等名词+doing sth.

  It is no use crying.哭没有用。It is no good objecting.反对也没有用。

  It is a great fun playing football.打篮球很有趣。

  It is a waste of time trying to explain.设法解释是浪费时间。

  3)It is + useless (nice, good,interesting, expensive等形容词)+ doing sth.

  It is useless speaking.光说没用。

  It is nice seeing you again.真高兴又遇到了你。

  It is good Playing chess after supper.晚饭后弈棋挺好。

  It is expensive running this car.开这种小车是浪费。

  4)There is no + doing...(there is no 表“不可能”)

  There is no telling what he is going to do.说出他要干什么是不可能的。

  There is no saying what may happen.说出将要发生什么是不可能的。

  5)There is no use (good/point/sense/harm)+doing sth.做某事没用(不好/意义/重要性)

  There is no use crying over spilt milk.牛奶洒了,哭也无用。

  6)have difficulty /trouble/problem + (in)+doing

  have作有解时,后接情感名词(in可省略),再接动名词。这类词还有trouble, fun, a hard time, a good time.

  例如:We had difficulty (in) carrying out the plan.我们执行计划有困难。

  7)feel like + 名词 感觉像动名词 “ 想要” =would like to +原形动词

  I feel like a newborn baby.我感觉像一个新生的婴儿。

  Do you feel like going to a movie?你想看电影吗?

  I don’t feel like studying tonight.今晚我不想读书。

  8) spend/waste time doing sth.

  They spent a lot time (in) making preparations.他们花了许多时间作准备。

  9)在require后只能用动名词,不能用不定式,尽管表示被动的意思也要用动名词的主动形式。

  This problem requires studying with great care.这个问题需要仔细研究。

  10)cannot help doing sth.忍不住(做什么)

  I cannot help laughing, once I see john in that big trouser.

  (2)有关分词句型

  1)在表示感觉和心里状态的动词see,hear,feel,smell,listen(to),notice,observe,smell,watch这类表示感觉的动词之后常跟“宾语+现在分词”的复合结构,这种动词与分词之间的宾语可以是普通名词或专有名词(人各等),也可以是代词宾格(him,us等)。例如:

  She smelt something burning and saw smoke rising.她闻到有东西在燃烧并看到有烟升起来了。

  I watched them rehearsing the play.我看他们排演戏。

  I could feel the wind blowing on my face.我能感觉到风在我脸上吹过。

  2)表示“致使”等意义的动词,如:catch,find,leave,give,have,get,set后也可跟上述(1)的结构,有时也可跟过去分词结构。例如:

  I caught them stealing my apples.我抓住他们偷我的苹果。

  If she catches me reading her diary,she’ll be furious.如果她抓住我偷看她的日记,她会愤怒的。

  We found him waiting to receive us.我们发现他正等着接待我们。

  3)go +现在分词表示“从事…”之意,这时现在分词做主语补语。go之后所接现在分词均表示短暂而又愉快的户外活动。如:jogging慢跑,fishing钓鱼,dancing跳舞,skating溜冰,bowling打保龄球,shopping 购物,sightseeing游览,camping露营。

  I’ll go camping tomorrow.我明天去露营。

  I’ll go shopping.我去商店。

  Would you like to go skating with me?你想和我去溜冰吗?

  4)be busy + v-ing(现在分词)忙着做…

  I am busy writing my thesis.我正忙着写论文。

  His assistant is busy(in) correcting papers.他的助教忙于批阅考卷。

  或者be busy with + n.忙着做某事。

  He is busy with his work.他忙着工作。

  5)What do you say to + ing分词?(……怎么样?)

  What do you say to joining us for dinner?和我们一起进餐,你看怎么样?

  (3)有关动词不定式句型

  下面这些词组是不定式的习惯用法,只能用不定式形式。

  can not help but do, can not but do, cannot choose but do, can do nothing but do, have no choice/alternative to do

  When I consider how talented he is as a painter, I cannot help but believe that the public will appreciate his gift.

  (4)there be的非谓语形式

  there be非谓语形式可在句中作主语、宾语、状语和定语。(其中作宾语和状语在1991年和1994年测试过,定语见1996年题10。)

  The students expected there to be more reviewing classes before the final exams.(作宾语如1991年题30)

  1)作动词宾语时,通常用there to be结构,而不用there being。能这样用的及物动词为:expect,like,mean,intend,want,prefer,hate等,如:

  We don’t want there to be any comrades lagging behind,我们不希望有任何同志掉队。

  They hate there to be long queues everywhere.他们不愿意处处都要排长队。

  We have no objection to there being a meeting here.我们并不反对在这里开会。

  It isn’t enough for there to be a frost tonight,so I can leave Jim’s car out quite safely.(作状语)

  2)作状语多用there being结构,但若置于介词之后,for用there to be整个介词短语作程度状语,其它多半用there being。

  There being nobody else at hand, I had to do by myself.由于附近没有人,我只得独自干了。(原因状语)

  It’s too early for there to be anybody up.太早了,还不会有人起床。(作程度状语)

  There having been no rain for a long time,the ground was very dry.因为好长时间没下雨了,地面非常干燥。(原因状语)

  3)作主语时两种结构都可以,但如是用for引导则要用there to be。

  It is not uncommon for there to be problems of communication between old and young.老人与年青人之间存在着沟通问题是很常见的。

  There being a kindergarten on campus is a great convenience to female teachers.幼儿园在校园内对女教师十分方便。

  4)作定语。 There be结构作定语时,定语从句中谓语为there be,there之前的关系代词常常省略。如:

  This is the fastest train (that) there is to Nanking.这是到南京的最快一班车。

  I must make full use of the time there is left to me and do as much as I can for the people.我要充分利用我剩下的岁月尽量为人民多做些事。

 

 

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